ARTHUR JEFFRESS | Circle for the Study of Art

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The full story of the Circle for the Study of Art, 1947/8, is told in Arthur Jeffress: A Life in Art but here is a full list of all lenders, as far as are known.

Arthur Jeffress lent Abstraction by Jackson Pollock, the first time the artist's work was seen in Britain.

Judges Lodgings, Winchester

CSA shows were held in the Judges’ Lodgings,
The Close, Winchester Cathedral.


N B C Lucas (Luke) 17 February 1930. His dismissal from Highgate School for refusing to attend chapel on Sundays. The inspiring Headmaster of Midhurst Grammar School, whose Jungian sympathies ensured that his pupils were treated as individuals and encouraged to reach their full potential.

John Louis Behrend (1881–1972) and his wife Mary were Stanley Spencer's principal patrons. According to their son George Behrend (Stanley Spencer at Burghclere, 1965) they first met Spencer at a party given by Lady Ottoline Morrell in 1914. In 1918 the Behrends moved from London to Grey House, Burghclere, Berkshire, where they lived for the next 36 years. In 1924 while on a visit to Henry Lamb, in Poole, Dorset, Spencer showed the Behrends designs for wall paintings for a memorial chapel. The same year the Behrends decided to build a chapel so that Spencer could carry out his scheme. The chapel was to be a memorial to Mrs Behrend's brother, Lieutenant H.W. Sandham RASC who had died in 1919 from illness contracted in Macedonia.

The Behrends commissioned Lionel Pearson FRIBA to design the chapel as well as two almshouses which flank it. The chapel, the Oratory of All Souls, Burghclere, Berkshire was dedicated by the Suffragan Bishop of Guildford on 25 March 1927. Spencer executed the paintings for the chapel between 1927 and 1932. They were based on his experience in the army during the First World War working first in a military hospital in Bristol and then in Macedonia. When the chapel was presented to the National Trust in 1947 it became known as the Sandham Memorial Chapel.

J.L. Behrend's art collection was exhibited at the Leicester Galleries in May 1962. Among many works by Stanley Spencer included in it were ‘Swan Upping’ and ‘Mending Cowls, Cookham’ (both now owned by the Tate Gallery). There were also works by Sickert, Henry Lamb, Edward Burra and Augustus John.

An oil painting of 1927 by Henry Lamb, belonging to the Hove Museum of Art, shows Louis and Mary Behrend with their young son and daughter (reproduced in colour in Studio, XCVI, 1929, p.163):

Dr George Marsden Roberts, who was formerly in general practice at Twyford, near Winchester, Hampshire, died on 7 October 1978. He was 89. ‘George Marsden Roberts was a most accomplished artist in water colours’ ... Married to Lilian who died 1957. Son Michael was fourth generation at Twyford practice.

Ernest Milton was born in 1890 in San Francisco, played most of the major roles in Shakespeare's plays with a number of Shakespearean companies. Early in his career he played Romeo and Bassanio, but it was in 1918 when he joined the Old Vic that he concentrated primarily on parts in Shakespeare. His last role was in 1960 when he played the Ghost and the First Player in Hamlet. These roles were only a part of the many characters he portrayed in a long, busy career on the stage in popular contemporary plays. In 1938 he performed as Henry IV and Julius Caesar for British television adaptations of the two plays. His credits include 16 films and television parts between 1920 and 1964.

Ernest Milton

Naomi ROYDE-SMITH (Mrs Ernest Milton) 1875 – 1964, a distinguished writer and literary editor of the Westminster Gazette.

Angus Wilson (orchid grower not novelist) and Paul Odo Cross (American collector and painter; lived near Fordingbridge). For more detail see Arthur Jeffress: A Life in Art. There is a wonderful portrait of Cross by his close friend Cedric Morris. It is in the National Museum of Wales - see it on the Art UK website.

Hilda Mar CapesDr Hilda Mary Capes Formerly Consultant, Southampton Children’s Hospital and Medical Director, Southampton Child Guidance Clinic. Mary Capes, as she was known, one of the early pioneers of child psychiatric practice in England, died on 19 October 2003, aged 93 years. Mary was born in Pretoria, South Africa in 1909 and after her family returned to this country, she studied medicine at the Royal Free Hospital, qualifying in 1933. She soon moved into the psychiatric field, obtaining a junior post at St James Mental Hospital, Portsmouth. In the 1930s, child psychiatric training was mainly psycho-analytic and to this end she was analysed by W. W. Stekel, an early disciple of Freud. She also attended courses at the Tavistock Clinic and the West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases.

Portsmouth was well known for its provision of child mental health care, through both health and educational services. From her hospital base she set up a Children’s Clinic in 1937. The outbreak of war in 1939 led to the evacuation of large numbers of children from Portsmouth and Southampton to less vulnerable parts of Hampshire. It quickly became apparent that separation from family stressed many of these children, triggering a variety of psychological, psycho-somatic and behavioural reactions such as enuresis. Hampshire County Council set up a multidisciplinary clinic which came under the direction of Mary and one of the ablest psychiatric social workers in the south, Marion Opie. These experiences in the early 1940s drew Mary’s attention to the developmental dangers of parentectomy - some years before the insights of Bowlby were published. After the war she became medical director of South-ampton Child Guidance Clinic. She took up a parallel appointment as consultant psychiatrist at the Southampton Children’s Hospital, where she saw at first hand that even short-term separations from parents could be traumatic.

Through the 1940s she played an important role in the development of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. In 1945 she joined the Child Psychiatry Section of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association, was the honorary secretary from 1947 to 1949 and was chairman from 1957 to 1959. Historically, hospital and specialist services were poorly developed in her own clinical area (Southampton and Hampshire), but the situation improved in 1958 when the Wessex Hospital Region was established. Mary successfully promoted the mental health needs of children leading to the establishment of the Wessex Unit for Parents and Children and, later the Leigh House Adolescent Unit. She set up the Wessex Child Psychiatrists’ Group, the first of its kind.

In 1950 the World Health Organization (WHO) first focused its attention on child and family mental health, and Mary directed the first meeting, on child guidance practice in 1952, so becoming the WHO consultant in child psychiatry for Europe. Further, she organised a second multidisciplinary meeting the same year, and she headed a study group in Sweden in 1954, which considered how paediatricians and child psychiatrists could work together for the benefit of the hospitalised child. By then Bowlby’s monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health was beginning to influence thinking and practice. Her international interdisciplinary study group experiences were brought together in a 1960 publication Conferences: their Nature and Dynamics and Planning.

In 1964 her husband became seriously ill and she retired prematurely to care for him. Regrettably, after his death, she decided not to return to the National Health Service. Later she formed a small research team to study outcomes of adolescent illness, funded by the Nuffield Foundation. One of the findings was that management of adolescent disturbance depended on point of entry to the system e.g. court, school or clinic - rather than psychological or behavioural characteristics.

Mary was a lady of great charm and elegance. Her open, unfussed, realistic approach to child mental health was appreciated by administrators and colleagues in related specialties. Her interest in art and architecture found expression in two remarkable Hampshire downland houses she helped design and create. She remained her essential self up to her ninetieth birthday. She is survived by her sister.

Margaret Graeme Niven was born in 1906 in Buckinghamshire, a daughter of William Niven, a well-known etcher. Margaret Niven studied under Bernard Adams (whose work she lent to CSA) at Heatherleys School of Fine Art. She was a landscape, portrait and flower painter, working in oils, watercolors, and ink washes. She was elected a member of the ROI in 1936, on the recommendation of Herbert Davis Richter. She remained a member, and sat on the council of the society, for the next 60 years. She exhibited her work at the Royal Academy, the RBA, RP, Leicester Galleries and Wildenstein's and she is represented in a number of English public collections. Niven died at 3 Broomhill, Sandhills, Godalming, Surrey on 30 March 1997.

Oliver Martin Wilson Warner (1903 - 14 August 1976) was a well-known British naval historian and writer. Warner was born in 1903 and educated at Denstone College and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1926 he succeeded Frank Swinnerton as staff reader at the publishing house of Chatto and Windus. In addition to his work as staff reader he also worked on the company's advertising material. As a young man he made contributions to magazines such as The Spectator and Time and Tide, some of which were later reproduced in his 1947 book Captains and Kings. In 1939 he published an account of his visit to an "unworldly" relative in Canada, entitled Uncle Lawrence. During the Second World War he joined the Admiralty secretariat, initially serving in the Commission and Warrant (C.W.) branch before serving on the war artists advisory committee. He later served as secretary to the naval honours and awards committee.

After the war he became deputy director of publications of the British Council, where he remained until his retirement in 1963. He worked thereafter at Chatto and Windus for another year before concentrating on writing. By the time of his death he had more than twenty books in print. He married twice, first to Dorothea Blanchard who died in 1937, by whom he had one daughter. He was married secondly to Elizabeth Strahan, with whom he had one son and one daughter.

Warner died at his home, Old Manor Cottage, Haslemere, on 14 August 1976. A memorial service was held on 21 October (Trafalgar Day) at St. Lawrence Jewry-next-Guildhall church. As well as family members, the naval historians Professor Christopher Lloyd and Captain Stephen Roskill were in attendance, among others.

Mr and Mrs Frank Ricardo Mortimer Ricardo, b. 10 Aug. 1807 at Mile End. In 1855, soon after the death of his wife, he sold the estate and went to live at Bure Homage, Christchurch, in Hampshire, where he died on 21 April 1876. The hosue was sold in 1939. He had seven sons and two daughters, several of his children dying before him, and was succeeded by his fifth son Frank Ricardo (1850–1897). The latter, on the death of his uncle Osman in 1881, inherited Bromesberrow Place, Gloucestershire, where the David Ricardo Papers (DR was an economist) were later found by his son and heir, Mr Frank Ricardo.

The Lord Ivor Charles Spencer-Churchill (14 October 1898–17 September 1956) was the younger son of the 9th Duke of Marlborough and his first wife, the former Consuelo Vanderbilt, an American railroad heiress. His elder brother, John, was the 10th Duke of Marlborough. His stepmother was the former Gladys Deacon, and his stepfather was Col. Jacques Balsan.

Spencer-Churchill was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford before joining the Royal Army Service Corps in 1917 and gaining the rank of lieutenant. He fought in the First World War and was decorated with the French Legion of Honour.

He married Elizabeth Cunningham on November 15, 1947 and had a son, Robert William Charles (born 1954). From 15 November 1947, her married name became Spencer-Churchill. She lived in 1999 at Fyning House, Rogate, Petersfield, Hampshire, England.

He died in September 1956. He is buried beside his cousin, Sir Winston Churchill, and close to his mother at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

Sir Walter Fraser Oakeshott FBA (1903–1987) was a schoolmaster and Oxford college head. He was headmaster of Winchester College and Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford. He was also Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1962 to 1964. Oakeshott joined the Roxburghe Club for bibliophiles in 1949 and was knighted in 1980. He was a Fellow of the British Academy and President of the Bibliographical Society (1966–1968)

James Seymour Denis Mansel was living in The College, Winchester in 1947. He became a Canon. He died on 22nd September 1995, aged 88.